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The results obtained from this study suggest that streptococcal infections can alter gut microbial communities leading to a pro-inflammatory state in the gut by selecting for specific bacterial strains that are normally associated with gut inflammation and activation of the immune response (Figure 7). This condition is likely maintained in patients, even after the infection itself has resolved. Moreover, an altered GM composition could have indirect effects by reducing the production of metabolites involved in important brain functions such as SCFA, D-alanine and tyrosine metabolism, and the d